Euphorbia carunculata


Rhodora 50: 63. 1948.

Common names: Sand-dune sandmat or spurge
Synonyms: Chamaesyce carunculata (Waterfall) Shinners
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 262. Mentioned on page 252, 257, 263.

Herbs, annual, with taproot. Stems prostrate, spreading and lanky or occasionally mat-forming, ± succulent, 70–150 cm, glabrous. Leaves opposite; stipules usually distinct, occasionally connate basally (primarily at distal nodes), usually divided into 2–5 subulate to subulate-filiform segments, occasionally forming narrow deltate segments (primarily at distal nodes), 0.8–1.8 mm, glabrous; petiole 3.1–6.3 mm, glabrous; blade ovate to elliptic-oblong, 5–26 × 4–12 mm, base subsymmetric to symmetric, rounded to cuneate, margins entire, apex usually mucronate, rarely acute or obtuse, surfaces glabrous; pinnately veined. Cyathia solitary at distal nodes; peduncle 1.4–3.6 mm. Involucre campanulate, 1.1–1.8 × 1.5–2.5 mm, glabrous; glands 4, yellowish, sessile or short stipitate, circular to oblong, 0.5–0.7 × 0.5–0.8 mm; appendages white to yellowish, ovate to oblong, occasionally rudimentary, (0–)0.8–1.2 × 0.8–1.5 mm, distal margin entire. Staminate flowers 15–25. Pistillate flowers: ovary glabrous; styles 0.7–1 mm, 2-fid 1/2 length. Capsules ovoid, 4.7–5.5(–6) × 3.6–5.1 mm, glabrous; columella 4.3–5.1 mm. Seeds grayish white to reddish brown mottled, bottle-shaped, strongly dorsiventrally compressed and weakly 3-angled in cross section, (2.8–)4.1–5.2 × 1.2–2(–3.4) mm, smooth; carunclelike structure linear, 0.4–0.5 × 0.1–0.2 mm.

Phenology: Flowering and fruiting summer–fall.
Habitat: Sand dunes.
Elevation: 400–1300 m.


V12 1054-distribution-map.jpg

Kans., N.Mex., Okla., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua).


Euphorbia carunculata has a highly localized and scattered distribution. The species is restricted to sand dunes and known from only a handful of localities throughout its relatively wide range. The seeds are unique in being bottle-shaped and strongly laterally compressed, and unlike other members of sect. Anisophyllum, there is a minute, linear, carunclelike protuberance at the hilum.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Euphorbia carunculata"
Victor W. Steinmann +, Jeffery J. Morawetz +, Paul E. Berry +, Jess A. Peirson +  and Ya Yang +
Waterfall +
Anisophyllum +
Sand-dune sandmat or spurge +
Kans. +, N.Mex. +, Okla. +, Tex. +  and Mexico (Chihuahua). +
400–1300 m. +
Sand dunes. +
Flowering and fruiting summer–fall. +
Chamaesyce carunculata +
Euphorbia carunculata +
Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum +
species +